Programming Chi

Tomasz Fijałkowski's programming blog.

Reducing coupling of Java 9 modules

In a Quick introduction to Java 9 modularization article I quickly introduce the basic concept of a Java 9 modularization. Now is the time to improve modules design. In this article we will focus on reducing modules coupling.

Following Dependency inversion principle which states that

  1. High-level modules should not depend on low-level modules. Both should depend on abstractions.
  2. Abstractions should not depend on details. Details should depend on abstractions.

There should be a possibility to declare that module depend on some API, not an implementation.

Fortunately, Java 9 introduces the concept of services - a module can register an implementation of an interface as a service. The other modules can consume this service. To take advantage of this solution at least three modules are required: a client code, a module with API and a module with implementation. The following example presents consuming of a service in (a client code):

module {
    requires pl.tfij.java9modules.greetings.api;
    uses pl.tfij.java9modules.greetings.Greeting;

A module depends on pl.tfij.java9modules.greetings.api API, not its implementation. To access the implementation of Greeting class just use ServiceLoader class:

ServiceLoader<Greeting> services = ServiceLoader.load(Greeting.class);

Notwithstanding, to run such code you have to provide required implementation in other module. A module that provides a service (module with implementation) declares module descriptor like:

module pl.tfij.java9modules.greetings.standard {
    requires pl.tfij.java9modules.greetings.api;
    provides pl.tfij.java9modules.greetings.Greeting
        with pl.tfij.java9modules.greetings.standard.StandardGreeting;

You can provide many modules and run code with many implementations. Just put them all on the module path.

To complete the example, a trivial file from module with API is presented below:

module pl.tfij.java9modules.greetings.api {
    exports pl.tfij.java9modules.greetings;

In this way, the coupling of modules is reduced - High-level modules depend on abstractions, not on low-level modules. The full example of the code is at my github: Java-9-modules—reducing-coupling-of-modules.